Smoking

Definition
It has been known for almost 50 years that tobacco use can be linked to cancers of the lung and head and neck. Eighty-five percent of the cases of head and neck cancer found each year are associated with tobacco use. Long-term smoking that begins before age 30 also increases the risk for developing colorectal cancer. Smoking contributes to cancer development by causing mutations in genes, impairing lung function, and decreasing the effectiveness of the immune system.

According to the American Lung Association, Hispanics generally have lower rates of smoking than other racial/ethnic groups with the exception of Asian Americans. In 2008, approximately 4.8 million (15.8%) Hispanics smoked compared to 21.3 percent of non-Hispanic blacks and 22.0 percent of non-Hispanic whites. However, smoking remains a continuing and serious problem in the Hispanic community.

Rates of current smoking among Hispanic women were much lower than the rates seen among women of other races as well as Hispanic men. In 2008, the percent of Hispanic men who smoked (20.7%) was almost double that of Hispanic women who smoked (10.7%).
There are significant variations in smoking rates among Hispanic subgroups. In 2008, Cubans had the highest rates of smoking at 21.5 percent, followed by American-born Mexicans (20.1%), Puerto Ricans (18.6%), Central and South Americans (12.8%), and immigrant Mexicans (11.6%), with the lowest rates among Dominicans at 10.7 percent.
Puerto Rican women are nearly twice as likely to smoke as women of other Hispanic groups.
Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans are much more likely to be heavy smokers than other Hispanic groups.
Between 1997 and 2007, the smoking rate has declined 51 percent among Hispanic high school students from 34 percent to 16.7 percent.
In 2006, 6.8 percent of Hispanic middle school students smoked cigarettes, a rate about equal to other racial/ethnic groups.
With the exception of Puerto Rican women, Hispanic women have low rates of smoking during pregnancy. In 2004, 2.6 percent of Hispanic women smoked during pregnancy; however, rates differ considerably within subgroups. In 2004, smoking during pregnancy was highest among Puerto Rican women (8.5 percent) and lowest among Central and South American women (1.2 percent).

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Causes
Nicotine is the chemical in tobacco that keeps you smoking. Nicotine is very addictive. It increases the release of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters, which help regulate mood and behavior. One of these neurotransmitters is dopamine, which makes you feel good. Getting that dopamine boost is part of the addiction process.

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Symptoms
In some people, using any amount of tobacco can quickly lead to nicotine dependence.

Signs that you may be addicted include:

•    You can’t stop smoking
•    You experience withdrawal symptoms when you try to stop
•    You keep smoking despite health problems
•    You give up social or recreational activities in order to smoke

 
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Exams and Tests
There are no physical tests to determine the exact degree to which you’re dependent on nicotine. Your doctor may ask you questions or have you complete a questionnaire to get a sense of how dependant you are on nicotine. The more cigarettes you smoke each day and the sooner you smoke after awakening, the more dependent you are.

 
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Treatments
Different ways to stop smoking are effective for different patients. Some smokers can quit with the help of counseling, while others may need nicotine replacement therapy or non-nicotine medicines to help them quit. Since patients can improve their health in many ways by quitting smoking, medicines are often prescribed with careful monitoring to help them succeed.

Nicotine Replacement Therapies

Nicotine replacement therapy may help with the withdrawal symptoms that patients experience when trying to stop smoking. Nicotine products include:
•    Nicotine inhalers.
•    Nicotine gum.
•    Nicotine lozenges.
•    Nicotine patches

 
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Possible Complications
Whether a patient has a cancer that is smoking-related or nonsmoking related, he or she is at increased risk of developing a second cancer at the same or another site, if smoking is not stopped. The risk of developing a second cancer may persist for up to 20 years, even if the original cancer has been successfully treated.

Patients with oral and pharyngeal cancers who smoke also have a high rate of second primary cancers. The risk decreases significantly, however, after 5 years of not smoking.

 
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When to Contact a Medical Professional
When you’ve decided that you’re ready to quit smoking, ask your doctor to help you create a treatment plan that works for you.
Preventions
The best way to prevent tobacco dependence is to not smoke in the first place. The best way to prevent your children from smoking is to not smoke yourself. If you’re a parent who smokes, the younger your children are when you quit, the less likely they are to become smokers themselves.

 
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Natural Remedies
Support is readily available to help you stop smoking and stay smoke-free for life. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful:

What You Need To Know:

• Focus on physical fitness
Increase your physical activity after giving up tobacco to prevent weight gain

• Participate in a quit-smoking program

Find a smoking-cessation program that holds regular meetings to discuss important topics such as strategies for stopping; factors that increase relapse risk; and problem-solving, stress-reduction, and coping skills.

These recommendations are not comprehensive and are not intended to replace the advice of your doctor or pharmacist. Continue reading the full smoking cessation article for more in-depth, fully-referenced information on medicines, vitamins, herbs, and dietary and lifestyle changes that may be helpful.
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