Hepatitis C is a viral disease that primarily affects the liver and is caused by the hepatitis C virus. The virus is usually spread through contact with the blood of an infected person, often from sharing needles to inject drugs.
Hepatitis C, like all forms of hepatitis, can damage the liver. Of people infected, 55 to 85 percent will develop chronic infection, and 75 percent of those with chronic infection will develop chronic liver disease.
The prevalence of hepatitis C infection found for men in other Hispanic groups are: Mexican (1.9 percent), Dominican (1.5 percent), Central American (1 percent), South American (.4 percent), and Cuban (0.8 percent). Hispanic women generally had a lower prevalence of hepatitis C infection than men, with Puerto Rican background women having the highest prevalence (3.9 percent) among Hispanic women. The overall prevalence of hepatitis C among men and women in the U.S. is 1.3 percent, according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The researchers said it was not clear why the prevalence of hepatitis C was highest among Hispanic men and women of Puerto Rican background compared with Hispanics of other backgrounds.
Non-A hepatitis; Non-B hepatitis
Hepatitis C is caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus. This virus causes chronic (long-term) infection in more than 85 percent of infected people, often leading to chronic liver disease. Hepatitis C is unrelated to any of the other known hepatitis viruses (A, B, D, and E).
You can get hepatitis C from infected blood or body fluids. Today, the most common way people get infected is by needle-sharing during intravenous drug use. Most new infections occur among intravenous drug users. In addition, an infected pregnant woman can infect her unborn baby.
Since 1992, when reliable blood screening procedures became available, the risk of transmission of hepatitis C by blood transfusion has fallen to less than one per million units of transfused blood, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Rarely, the virus can be transmitted through sexual intercourse.
Hepatitis C is not transmitted through shaking hands, coughing, sneezing, breastfeeding, or sharing cups and utensils.
Most people with acute or chronic hepatitis C have few, if any, symptoms and are not even aware they are infected. If there are symptoms, they may include:
• Dark urine
• Loss of appetite
• Abdominal pain
• Nausea or vomiting
Symptoms of acute hepatitis C, if they appear at all, generally appear 6 to 12 weeks after exposure to the virus.
Even if they don’t show symptoms, some people with chronic hepatitis C may develop serious liver disease that is not apparent at first. In the United States, chronic hepatitis C infection is the leading cause of cirrhosis (severe liver disease) and liver cancer, both of which can be fatal.
Exams and Tests
Healthcare providers can diagnose hepatitis C with a blood test.
If you are diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C, your healthcare provider may advise you to have a liver biopsy to find out if you have chronic liver disease. Unfortunately, by the time a healthcare provider diagnoses serious liver disease, liver damage can be considerable and even irreversible. This damage often results in cirrhosis (severe liver disease) or liver cancer.
The symptoms of liver damage may not appear for several years. Therefore, it is important for people at high risk of infection to be tested for hepatitis C so they can start treatment as early as possible. High-risk groups include:
• People who had transfusions of blood or blood products before routine blood screening began
• People receiving dialysis
• People who may have had intimate contact with anyone infected with hepatitis C
• Healthcare workers exposed to infected people
• Current or former injection-drug users
• People with abnormal liver tests
• People who are HIV positive
If you are diagnosed with hepatitis C infection, your healthcare provider will examine you for liver disease and prescribe medicine to get rid of the virus. Two medicines are used to treat hepatitis C: interferon and ribavirin. Most health experts advise using both drugs together. The response to treatment varies from person to person.
About 15 to 25 percent of those infected with hepatitis C will recover completely.
Because other hepatitis viruses and alcohol use are associated with faster progression of the disease, health experts advise people with hepatitis C to avoid drinking alcohol and to be vaccinated against hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses.
Hepatitis C infection that continues over many years can cause significant complications, such as:
• Scarring of the liver tissue (cirrhosis). After 20 to 30 years of hepatitis C infection, cirrhosis may occur. Scarring in your liver makes it difficult for your liver to function.
• Liver cancer. A small number of people with hepatitis C infection may develop liver cancer.
• Liver failure. A liver that is severely damaged by hepatitis C may be unable to function.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if:
• You develop symptoms of hepatitis
• You believe you have been exposed to the hepatitis C virus
Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C infection, However, you can take steps to protect yourself from becoming infected with hepatitis C virus and to prevent passing the virus to others.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends:
• Don’t share personal care items that might have blood on them, such as razors or toothbrushes
• Avoid injected drugs or, for drug users, enter a treatment program
• Never share needles, syringes, water, or “works” (equipment for intravenous drug use) and get vaccinated against hepatitis A and hepatitis B if you are a drug user
• Consider the risks of getting tattoos or body piercings. You can get infected if the tools have someone else’s blood on them or if the artist or piercer does not follow good health practices.
• Don’t donate blood, organs, or tissue if you have hepatitis C
Get a handle on hepatitis. This common liver disease can be severe, or even fatal, so it is important to know the facts. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful:
What You Need To Know:
• Get evaluated
See a healthcare provider to determine the cause and best treatment for your condition
• Check out SAMe
1,600 mg a day of the supplement S-adenosylmethionine may help resolve blocked bile flow
• Reduce damage with milk thistle
Take a standardized herbal extract providing 420 mg a day of silymarin to help the liver
• Try phyllanthus
900 to 2,700 mg a day of this herb may be beneficial for people with hepatitis C
These recommendations are not comprehensive and are not intended to replace the advice of your doctor or pharmacist. Continue reading the full hepatitis article for more in-depth, fully-referenced information on medicines, vitamins, herbs, and dietary and lifestyle changes that may be helpful.