Health Effects Of Racial Discrimination
As people of color, Latinos have endured stress on various levels including that of judgement and impairment by others. As time has passed, the level of perceived equality in a societal structure has too leveled itself out to an extent. However, there are instances where psychosocial stressors, like racism, can still be seen in every day situations.
Racism is one societal stressor that not only plays a negative role in individuals, but also in society and community as a whole. This type of stress can affect behavioral and mental health.
According to the United Nations, racism is defined as “any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, color, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.”
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The Star-Spangled Banner
Most recently, the United States saw examples of blatant racism when Sebastien De La Cruz took the floor to sing the National Anthem at the NBA Finals game in San Antonio. An 11-year-old San Antonio native, De La Cruz was the target of blatant racial judgments on Twitter and other social media outlets, claiming that he must be “illegal” possibly due to the Mariachi outfit he was wearing.
Nicknamed “El Charro de Oro”, De La Cruz explained that his father served in the United States Navy and that he could really care less as to what people were saying about him. “I knew that I would be judged for my singing,” he said on a television interview. He then said that he didn’t care what people were saying about him.
“They don’t know my life,” he said.
A Social Construct
It has been said repeatedly that race is a social construct and is a mechanism in which unequal distributions of risks and opportunities are created. It is an ideal that is created through our race-conscious society on nothing but the physicality of other people. But however imaginary this construct is, it has a lasting affect on people’s feelings and emotions which can eventually lead to a difference in physical health.
Internalizing this deep type of psychosocial stressor has been studied and found to have a lasting impact on multiple groups of color within the United States.
Based on research and studies, not to mention real-life experiences, there are multiple ways that racism can affect health. According to a study done by the National Institute of Health, racism creates discrepancies in socioeconomic status which can then result in differential health outcomes; impact the quality in which people receive health care and adversely affect psychological and physiological functioning.
In Native American communities as well as Black communities, discrimination has lead to the use of alcohol, tobacco and drugs. In other communities of color, the problem with internalizing racial discrimination has lead to behavioral conditions linked to anger and conduct problems. Additionally, it was found that discrimination has also lead to poorer self-esteem and higher levels of hopelessness.
Through a study done on teens in Barbados, it was found the girls who internalized racism had a higher rate of insulin resistance.
In a 2003 study among bicultural Mexican Americans, it was found that stress came from acculturation gaps, the need for better Spanish and the impact of their parents’ culture. This lead to a higher rate of depression and anxiety.
Shaking It Off
Like any other type of stress, it is important to de-stress and relieve oneself of the anxiety that comes with racial comments from outside individuals. However many studies that have been conducted, coping mechanisms for these experiences have not been professionally concluded.
As a community, though, learning from 11-year-old De La Cruz is a place to start. Many ignorant comments are made based on outside judgments. The fact that this Mariachi singer could quite literally shake it off and say that it didn’t matter what other people thought of him is a step in the right direction.
1. Know your worth. Self-esteem is the number one tool you need to strengthen to fight internalization of racial discrimination. Tell yourself why you’re special and important to those around you.
2. Know where you come from. The more you know about who you are and where you come from, the prouder you will become. Latinos have a long history in the United States. Get to know about it and don’t let it anger you. Let it make you proud.
3. Know who loves you. No one can make you feel less than, besides yourself. These words have been uttered multiple times in various ways, but it’s true. Keep yourself surrounded by those who will make you feel better, who love you and support you. Find a support system and stick to it.